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The quality of Human Resource is an asset to any organization and as a result Training has become an issue that has to be faced by every organization. The amount, and quality of training carried out varies enormously from organization to organization due to factors such as the degree of external change, for instance, new markets or new processes, the adaptability of existing workforce and importantly the extent to which the organization supports the idea of internal career development. Most organizations meet their needs for training in an ad hoc and haphazard way whiles others set about identifying their training needs, then design training activities in a rational manner and finally assess the results of training. This study, therefore, sought to determine the impact of Training and Development on public sector organizations using Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority (GPHA) as a case study. The research was intended to determine the role and impact of training on employees with emphasis on the lower, middle level staff and the administrators of GPHA, who were randomly selected. The study assessed the training and development process of GPHA and whether training has improved employee performance. A questionnaire was designed using structured questions to collect primary data from employees of GPHA. Personal interviews were held with some management staff of the organization. The results indicated that GPHA’s employees were not well informed about training and development programmes in the organization. Most of the employees were of the view that training and development were effective tools for both personal and organizational success. The findings revealed that training practices, methods and activities at GPHA are not in line with the best practices regarding the planned and systematic nature of the training process as is generally known. It was recommended among other things, that the processes involved in training be duly followed, GPHA should help its staff identify their career paths and to guide them in the pursuit of higher education.


1.0 Introduction

The main purpose of the study is to assess the effects of Training and Development on Employees Performance in the Public Sector of Ghana.

Chapter one outlines the background, problem statement, main and specific objectives of the study. The chapter continues by highlighting the research questions, significant, scope, limitations, and the organization of the study.

1.1 Background of the Study

In the fast pace changing world of business and environmental uncertainty, organizations realize its limitation of dealing with new challenges and should therefore invest in training programs to make their employees competent enough to face uncertainties and take effective decision in time and also remain competitive in the market (Tai, 2006). Effective training is beneficial for the firm in variety of ways, such as, it plays a vital role in building and maintaining capabilities, both on individual and organizational level, and thus participates in the process of organizational change (Valle et al. 2000). Moreover, it enhances the retention capacity of talented workforce, hence decreasing the unintentional job rotation of the workers (Shaw et al. 1998). Furthermore, it indicates the firm’s long-term commitment towards its workers and increases the employee’s motivational level (Pfeffer, 1994). All these contributions lead to achieving competitive advantage (Youndt et al.1996) and to an enhancement in employee performance and organizational productivity (Bart el, al. 1994).

Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization. Therefore, training can be put in a contact relevant to public sector administrators. However, knowledge is the ability, the skill, the understanding, the information, which every individual requires in order to be able to function effectively and perform efficiently (Mamoria, 1995)

Abiodun (1999) submitted that: Training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside organization.

Adeniyi (1995) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore, provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge. In appreciation of this fact, public sector organizations conduct training and development programmes for different levels of their manpower.

Usually, before training or development programmes are organized efforts are being made through individuals and organizational appraisals to identify the training needs. After the training and development programmes, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the need, which had been identified. It is worthy of mention that organization development follows the development of individual who form the organization. It follows that no organization becomes effective and efficient until the individual have and apply the required skills and knowledge. Training has been observed as part of human development. Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and change over time. But at all levels of development, the three essential ones are for people to live a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge through training, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available many other opportunities remain inaccessible (Baruch, 2006).

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