AN INVESTIGATION OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT OWNED ESTABLISHMENT
The history of personnel management begins around the end of the 19th century, when welfare officers sometimes called welfare secretaries came into being. They were women and concerned only with the protection of women and girls. Their creation was a reaction to the harshness of industrial conditions, coupled with pressure arising from the extension of the franchise, the influence of trade unions and the labour movement, and the campaigning of enlightened employers, often Quakers, for what was called “industrial betterment”. As the role grew there was some tension between the aim of moral protection of women and children and the needs for higher output
The first world war accelerated change in the development of personnel management, with women being recruited in large numbers to fill the gaps left by men going to fight, which in turn meant reaching agreement with trade unions (often after bitter disputes) about ‘dilution’ accepting unskilled women into craftsmen’s jobs and changing manning levels. During the 1920s, jobs with the titles of labour manager’ or employment manager’ came into being in the engineering industry and other industries where there were large factories, to handle absence, recruitment, dismissal and queries over bonuses and so on. Employers’ federations, particularly in engineering and shipbuilding, negotiated national pay rates with the unions, but there were local and district variations and there was plenty of scope for disputes. During the 1930s, with the economy beginning to pick up, big corporations in these new sectors saw value in improving employee benefits as a way of recruiting, retaining and motivating employees. But older industries such as textiles, mining and shipbuilding which were hit by the worldwide recession did not adopt new techniques, seeing no need to do so because they had no difficulty in recruiting labour. In the preceding decades, due to wars, economic and social pressure, further enlightenment on the parts of managers, government regulations and other influences, the scope of personnel management has expanded to this day. In fact, it has become difficult to distinguish clearly between personnel administration and the administration process of all management.
The principles or philosophies which guide management in caring on their activities pretty with the same principles or philosophies, which guide personnel administration had been able to express by ALEXANDER R. HERON. In his book “Reasonable goals in industrial relations”. He said that the things that has been the emergence of something in the mind and soul of a worker. These things makes him unwilling to continue for the rest of his life in a relationship which is perhaps ideal in all its material aspects, but in which the decision are well made and the guidance all given by the employer. This problem of social consciousness or part of forces to the change in personnel administration increases demand on the personnel department and as a result levels to necessary demand on qualifications of the personnel manager. These managers have come together to form a professional association, which serve as an exchange point of view and eventually where they strive to attain professional status. This has level to increased salaries paid to competent personnel mangers and in addition many personnel managers have been made vice president in the responsive companies.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The effectiveness of any organization, despite its category is measured by its objectives, the quality of its service and production, the quality of products and services to the benefit of the masses. Personnel administration is all about the relationship between the employer and the employees which will gear to mass and efficient production to maximize profit. Therefore, the catalysts that make all other resources succeed or failure is the organizational line of management with their workers which will make them to apply full force and effort in service delivery. We can see that in management whether private or public sector, human component takes the central position of service while other variables depend highly on how the human and material resources maybe managed. Furthermore, tracing the background of personnel administration, my focus is from the work of Yusuf (1982) and Aliyu (1981) including others who believed that organizational or organized labour in Nigeria come from trade unionisms. The civil servant union of (1912) followed with the railway workers union in (1931), Nigeria union of teachers with the objectives of security and welfare of their members in the work force union. This union started fighting for better condition of service for their members immediately after Second World War, which laid to general strike but the fight continued which made the union leading clash with the manager (employees). Also, the era of Chinese industrial action this brought about department organization and professionalism in organization most especially in production industries. The emergence of United States and other western countries aiming for were programmes and technical assistance development after the Second World War these programmes were carried out by the concerned countries where people were mainly trained on various technical skills which were later used jointly by the Americans and the Asians to repair the damaged properties during the war. Meanwhile, these programmes were used to educate citizens on various field like health, unity, education and many others. From the above information, some experts of public administrators were sent to foreign countries in 1950’ to assist in administrative ideologies concerning the social economic programmes as well as technical expert to strengthen the public institution of some newly independent countries. This motivated others to administer more personnel who will deliver the services.
Another point is where personnel administration emerged. It is at the era of British colonial administration by 1914. These set of people arrived Nigeria after some decades ago where several groups of the western ranging from the westerns explorers, the merchants, lastly the missionaries, when John Alphonsors D’ivor arrived. They came and ushered in commercial activities on buying and selling equally; other forms of distributive trades. This stipulated the economy and ways of employment of labour to the civil servant.
Consequently, the above information has called for the need not only to upgrade the knowledge and skills of the experienced personnel and human resource management/administration in an organization but also personnel in every organization as the key role players, therefore the need for material and human resources development must be considered to be the priority within the cycle of personnel administration. So, personnel welfare should be the second among the organization and priority for effective and efficient productivity.