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THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A DUST EXTRACTOR

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  INTRODUCTION

The ability to envisage a better way to solving the problems of his society has always been a trait of the engineer. Engineers employ their creative ingenuity in proffering solutions to the problems of mankind. Man was joyful on the advent of industrial revolution but man would have to contend with problems brought about by that revolution. One of such problems is pollution brought about by the effluence from certain industrial machineries and processes (1).
And specifically is the issue of dust pollution. Industrial processes such as those involving asphalt or cement productions, for instance, releases dust effluents to the atmosphere, which if left uncontrolled could lead to serious health problems for those working in such plants or people living in the environment.
There is therefore the need to design a device, machine or process that would extract the dust from the air before the air is released to the  atmosphere, and such a device must be inexpensive but very effective to enable small scale business owners have access to it. Hence the design and construction of the “Dust Extractor Machine”.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
Professional workshops have known for decades that one of the most important pieces of machinery in the workshop is an adequate extractor. It’s only us serious DIYers that seem to question their wisdom. A clean, dust-free workplace is not only safer, but far less work in the long run. There is less cleanup and less airborne dust, which is very important when it comes to the finishing stage. Another important fact is that it is far better for your machinery to have this dust and shavings removed. Other then being forced back around the cutting area and affecting the quality of the work, fine dust particles can be sucked into electrical components, build up on moving parts or pile up in areas underneath your machinery (becoming a fire hazard in the process). Worst of all, these particles can find their way into your lungs. Dust extraction is NOT a replacement for PPE (Personal Protective Equipment,) but if it reduces the dust in your immediate work area, it means your Personal Protective Equipment is going to work much more efficiently too. The sad fact is that running machinery without dust extraction may affect your warranty if something does go wrong.
Most workshops have access to a vacuum cleaner, either a dedicated unit or the better half’s household unit (only if you don’t get caught)! They’re great for cleaning the car and even getting the dust off the floor of the workshop. Isn’t it annoying when a little off cut or long splinter gets stuck in the hose? You hear the motor start to struggle and whine and you proceed to wave the end of the hose around in some strange ritual that will hopefully dislodge the offending piece. It really comes down to a simple rule – vacuums are made to vacuum and extractors are made to extract. Vacuum cleaners work on the principal of a low volume of air traveling at high velocity, while extractors work on high volume air, traveling at low velocity. Vacuums are great for lifting small quantities of fine dust from the bottom of your carpet through a small diameter hose. Dust extractors, on the other hand, are designed to cope with the quantity of waste constantly being produced, and the large diameter hose means no blockages (provided you have ENOUGH air volume). Air volume is measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM), and even a small, basic 1HP extractor is going to give you 600+ CFM of air flow. Most cutting/drilling machinery will require at least 600CFM of extraction. Edge planers or jointers need slightly more (depending on size), but large milling machines such as thicknessers will require at least 800-900CFM at the extraction point on the machine. This is an important consideration before taking the plunge.

1.2   PROBLEM STATEMENT
The environmental degration is, in turn contributing to health threat in this part of the globe.  Unfortunately most factories, workshops which suppose to posses these machines for dust extractions are not having them thereby making dust a very dangerous threat to man.
Due to this ugly development it, is obvious that these factories and workshops can do little or nothing to protect our environment from this poor state.  It is therefore necessary that all and sundry should join the crusade of eradicating dust from our environment thereby making it clean.  Although before now people have tried to contribute their own quota in seeing to the end of the menace, get lack of interest, finance has posed a hindrance to the realization of this achievement.
In workshop, a good dust extraction system is essential. Dust can cause serious damage to health as well as reducing the effectiveness of your machine, or even causing damage to it.
In view of the above, we deemed it necessary that such a machine should be constructed to the Mechanical Engineering workshop to eradicate dust and thereby make the workshop environment clean and fit for students practical activities.
Man’s impact on global environment system especially in the area of dust extraction is now at a scale where it is disrupting.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is to:

  • Design and construct a simple machine that would capture and purify the air within a production room.
  • To test and evaluate the designed machine.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
This device is targeted at solving the problem of dust pollution occurring from small scale business ventures where dust is generated such as solid mineral processing factories, wood processing factories, grain milling and threshing and other such similar ventures or activities where dust  is  readily and openly released to the atmosphere or the environment. Indigenous extractor devices are not common; this research will be an indigenous design of a dust extractor machine.

1.5  ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT

Removing dust at source creates a healthier and safer working environment, with the additional benefit of reduced clean-up. It extends equipment life by minimizing the ingress of dust, which would otherwise accelerate wear on switches, motors and mechanical components. In many instances, it also extends the working life of the cutting blades and disks. Dust control is an inherent feature on most of our Surface Preparation offerings including the power tools and angle grinder attachments we provide for working in restricted areas. Good dust extraction extends the life of your tools by reducing motor heat resulting in dust-induced tool failure.

  • Removal efficiency (can be controlled in 30mg/nm3 below).
  • Whole device resistance (low 800pa above).
  • Operation and maintenance costs low.
  • Easy maintenance (in the case of non- stop complete maintenance work).

1.5 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VACUUM CLEANER AN EXTRACTOR


Most workshops have a vacuum cleaner which is good for

cleaning the workshop floor or the car. However, the vacuum cleaner can never operate as an extractor. The difference between a vacuum cleaner and an extractor is very evident. The working principle of a vacuum is of a small air volume at a high velocity while that of extractors is a large air volume with a low velocity. Vacuum cleaners are meant to lift small particles, thus the small diameter of the hose whereas the extractor is designed for large quantities of waste, hence the big hose to reduce clogging. The wide hose also ensures large air volume at least 600 cubic feet per minute which is the relative amount of extraction needed by most drilling or cutting machines. Larger machines like thicknesses will however require, at the extraction point, at least 800-900CFM.
Most wood-working equipment usually have extraction connection of large diameter of about 100-200mm (4″-5″) and your extractor should properly match this dimensions. It is important to properly position your dust collector for it to work efficiently. 10-20% of suction volume is lost for every metre of the flexible hose run and even more is lost for every bend. This waste is due to the disruption of air flow by the ridges in the hose. Rigid metal pipes with engineered bends and smooth finish can run on high capacity extractors and are very efficient. They also enable running of many machines at once. The suction loss is barely 2% but they are very expensive. It is good to keep the extraction system of your home simple and straight and never forget that the bigger the CFM, the better.

CHAPTER ONE: The complete chapter one of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor” is available. Order full work to download. Chapter one of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”consists of the literature review. In this chapter all the related work on“design and fabrication of a dust extractor” was reviewed.

CHAPTER TWO: The complete chapter two of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”is available. Order full work to download. Chapter two of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”consists of the literature review. In this chapter all the related work on “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”was reviewed.

CHAPTER THREE: The complete chapter three of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”is available. Order full work to download. Chapter three of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”consists of the methodology. In this chapter all the method used in carrying out this work was discussed.

CHAPTER FOUR: The complete chapter four of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”is available. Order full work to download. Chapter four of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”consists of all the test conducted during the work and the result gotten after the whole work

CHAPTER FIVE: The complete chapter five of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”is available. Order full work to download. Chapter five of “design and fabrication of a dust extractor”consist of conclusion, recommendation and references.

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