THE EFFECTS OF QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA) EGG DIET ON BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILE LEVELS OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS
Egg consumption is a popular choice for good nutrients, but by far the egg most often consumed by human is the chicken egg, typically unfertilized. Quail eggs help treat tuberculosis, asthma, and diabetes and it can also help prevent kidney, liver, or gallbladder stones. Thus, this study is aimed at determining quail egg’s dietary effect on the blood sugar and lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats. The quail egg sample was analyzed for its various nutritional compositions using the Association of Official Analytic Chemists (AOAC) methods. Sixty (60) processed quail eggs and shells, using the cooked-dry method, were administered to thirty six (36) alloxan induced diabetic rats which were grouped into nine (9) different groups of four (4) rats each, at varied doses per group for a duration of seven (7), fourteen (14) and twenty one (21) days. Their lipid profiles were determined using standard methods while histological analyses were carried out using the standard paraffin process method (tissue processing method). Results showed that quail eggs are good sources of protein, lipids and moisture (15.10±0.16%, 31.39±0.26%and 50.18±0.25% respectively). However, the ash and carbohydrate contents are minimal (1.13±0.09% and 0.65±0.05% respectively). Elemental analysis indica tes that the shell is a rich source of Calcium, 3000.00mg/100g; Zinc, 38.15mg/100g; Iron, 175.40mg/100g; Phosphorous, 120.00mg/100g and Magnesium, 78.00mg/100g. Rats treated with two (2) Raw Quail eggs (2RE) showed the best performance in terms of lowering the blood glucose level and weight gain when compared with the insulin treated rats. Statistical analysis of the blood glucose at intervals (day 7, day 14 and day 21), indicates that for a mid-term and long-term treatment of diabetes, quail eggs can be of effective use. Quail egg treatment does not also affect the serum lipid profile of diabetic rats but can however lower or reduce the level of any risk of diabetic dyslipidemia. It is concluded that intake of diets rich in magnesium and leucine, such as a quail egg diet provides, either alone or as part of a therapeutic regimen, can have beneficial effect in the prevention and management of type 1 diabetes.
1.1 Background of the Study
Good nutrition affects growth and development of the human body. Nutritional composition research has shown that eating well-balanced food can improve human health. Variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, grain, and protein, are essential for the full range of nutrients required for good health. The right balance of calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals provides energy and the variety of nutrients for growing children and for working adults. Foods that are high in fat, sugar, or salt should be limited in consumption because they do not provide important nutrients. Both the Child and Adult Care Program (CACFP) meal pattern, and the Pyramid Web site by US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, encourage eating variety of foods (US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, 2005).
Egg consumption is a popular choice for good nutrients, but by a wide margin the egg most often humanly consumed is the chicken egg, typically unfertilized (Applegate, 2000). The avian egg is an important source of nutrients, containing the proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and growth factors required by the developing embryo, as well as a number of defence factors to protect against bacterial and viral infection. Moreover, eggs contain substances with biological functions and activities, i.e. immune proteins, enzymes, etc. (Hansen et al., 1998; Nowaczewski et al.,2013), characterized by anti-adhesive and antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activities, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antihypertensive activities, protease inhibitors, nutrient bioavailability, and functional lipids, highlighting the importance of egg and egg components in human health and in disease prevention and treatment (Kovacs-Nolan et al., 2005).