AN APPRAISAL OF THE PRESERVATION OF LIBRARY MATERIALS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Library is an institution housing a collection of books and non-book materials like the audiovisual equipments in a systematic manner for easy receival by he users. The primary aim f he library is to provide and preserve the information for users.
Chukwuma (2004), use of library states that “library is a place where professionally selected and acquired books and non-book materials are processed and orderly arranged ot make for easy location, retrieval and use”.
Eyisi (2011), foundation of library states that “library is a collection of sources, services and the structure in which it is housed which is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution or a private individual”. There is need therefore, for any library to acquire information materials that would satisfy the need of us users and also preserve these information materials for posterity. This study will therefore, focus on the preservation of library materials in the Kenneth Dike E. library Awka.
According to New enclopedia Britannica, preservation is defined as “planned management natural resources or the total environment of a particular ecosystem to prevent exploitation destruction or neglect and to ensure the future of that resources”.
Boochaarden (1955), simple defined preservation as action taken, anticipated, prevent, stop or retard deterioration”.
Preservation of library material in the public libraries is the act of keeping both books and non-book materials safe from the destructive effects of sunlight, human handling, animals and others insidious enemies of library material such as book-worms and moulds.
The deterioration of information materials is not a recent phenomenon. Research predicts that all paper base records may face imminent ruin if nothing is done to preserve them.
Williams (1970) noted that was everything in the library collection is deteriorating today was deteriorating yesterday and will continue to deteriorate tomorrow although we ought ot retard the process”.
According to Akwabro (198) “the issue of preserving library materials stared as for back as 668-626 BC in Assyria Egypt and China where knowledge was recorded in papyrills and palm leaves which were mostly used in Egypt then were special rooms and some people were employed to take proper care of them, chains were usually used to hold the table by typing them to he reading tablets.
A preservation programme provides a complete protection services beginning with systematic cleaning of the collection at suitable interval. However, the entire collection will have to pass through repair, rebuilding, replacement, microfilm or new stabilization process. To ensure that library methals remain available to be presented to future generation of library usere. Libraies should engage in a variety of preservation efforts such as conserving the original material and the transfer of information form original materials to more durable formats.
This can be achieved by appointing a conservator who will be expert in weather preservation, insection control, mold and footing as well as blinding and lamination, such a person must be expert in photograph reproduction; he guard against all chemical unstabilized articles especially the atmospheric condition and protects the books against excessive exposure to sunlight. He must know the problems of housing manuscript, maps and sheet music.
Materials in the library face a lot of problems in the course of their preservation. Unfortunately, even when the custodians of these material become aware of these of these problems, they may be handicapped by the relative unavailability of expert advice on which procedures to follow in conserving these material.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACGROUND OF KENNETH DIKE D. LIBRARY IN AWKA
The history of Prof. Kenneth Dike state central e-library, Awka commissioned by his Excellency Chief Peter Obi (CON) governor of Anambra State on Saturday 15th March, 2014 facilitated by Chief (Barr) Joe martin Uzodike. Hon. Commissioner for information culture and tourism Anambra state Prof. Kenneth Onwuka Dike e-library was formerly known as Anambra state library was at Enugu State by after the creation of the sate (Anambra) on 27th August, 1991, the library was situated from Enugu to Anambra after the creation of the state, he old workers working in Enugu divided the materials in the old Anambra Library Board.
NB: Enugu, Imo and Anambra Satte library law is a parastatal and it was set up under cap 82 law of Anambra state Nigeria then 2669 of 1979. when this library was shifted form Enugu to Anambra state, it was being located at N0 36 Zik Avenue Awka to a private library then to federal government college then to St. Mary’s secondary school, Ifite Dunu.
The foundation stone of Prof. Kenneth Onwuka Dike library was then being laid by the ex-governor of Anambra state, Chief Peter Obi on the 10th September, 2008 and a permanent library since was built.
After 2 years of building completion of the library, Dr. Mrs. Nkem Osuigwe, became the director of library service, with the permission for governor Peter Obi and the ex-commissioner of information Joe Martin Uzodike, went into the new building with the librarians assistance and library officers and started furnishing and arranging book in order, setting the library in a standard form.
On he 5th March 2014, Chief Peter Obi governor Ementus Anambra stae commissioned the new Prof. Kenneth Dike e-library. Awka and since the library is now opened for users.
In Kenneth Dike e-central library, we have 5 departments.
1. DIRECTOR’S OFFICE: It is where the dictator stay and those people who with her are administered. We have three divisional libraries and 9 branches that me it 11 branches it is headed by Dr. Mrs Nkem Osuigwe.
2 ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT: Is where the workers and other staff that is working there is administered. It is headed by Mrs. Nkiru Amaobi.
3 ACCOUNTANT DEPARTMENT: It is where the financial issued of the library are runned with chartered accountants. It is headed by Mrs Ngozi Obosita.
4 TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT: In this, we have librarians who catalogue and classify books, the typist and library assistant. It is headed by Mrs Uju Akanya.
5 PUBLIC SECTION DEPT. (P.S.D) CIRCULAITON DEPT: Its were the books fleats, in this PSD. We have 6 dept section in public section department; we have six section; they incoude:
i E-LIBRARY: Is where we have the computers and were those that want to do research and also to do computer training are trained. It is headed by Mrs Ifeoma Dikpo.
ii LENDING SECTION: It is the only seciton that book can be borrowed and read. It is headd by Mrs Ekwunife success.
iii NIGERIANNA: This is were the books written about Nigeria as a country are kept or another foreign author wrote about Nigeria are kept. It is headed by Mrs. Ujuibida.
iv CHILDREN SECTION: Is were all the children fictions and non fiction books are kept and also toys are kept there. It is head by Mrs Nneka Okoye.
v REFERENCE SECTION: It is the section most royal book the books that are not rampant and costly books are kept and mostly for the researchers. It is headed by Mrs Cordelia Obalum.
vi SERIAL SECTION: It is were magazine’s newspapers journals and gaxettes are kept in the library. It is headed by Mr. Fidelis Okoye.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of preservation of library materials is not a recent phenomenon. It has been with us since books wer invented and libraries were first established this issue of preservation of materials. This harm could be caused by both drawmtic and quiet enemies ofbooks like damp, air pollution, insects, radants etc do silent damage ot books. Alsso rough handling of books can be a problem library users can at times flare some pages of library books due to mistanding.
Even films, film strips and scides may break and equie spacing due to rough handling.
Other various function causing deterioration include atmosphere factors like poluctants, humidity that is height and biological factors like fungi bacteria, insects man also by accident or intentionally vandalize library materials, mechanical failure of control system like air conditioner and natural disaster like flood, earth quake fire and wars.
Therefore, these certain prlems which this study will solve are as follows:
a What constitutes library material to be preserved
b What are the causes of paper deterioration?
c How ot preserve library materials from insects and animals.
d What are the effect of natural and artificial phenomena f library materials?
e Is preservation against human being, pest and fungi necessary in the library.
f Why is preservation necessary in the library ?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i To ascertain the various methods in which library materials could be preserved in our public libraries.
ii To ascertain the extent of use of the library materials.
iii To provide a comprehensive treatment of library materials.
iv To make recommendations based of the findings the study.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project does not intend to acomplete work on the preservation of library materials but centered on the Kenneth Dike e- library and also to study the causes and effect of paper deterioration.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This investigation will study the causes of library material deterioration in tenneth Dike e- library. This study became necessary in a public library due to the poor economic situation in the country. Not all indicudual can afford to buy textbooks and other education materials for their children in this case, the children and adult will be making use of the library whose material are well preserved.
Therefore, this research work will provide enough insiht or opportunity to institution of higher. ******* public sakoor even private libraries which may find this research project useful as it will further enhance their techniques in the prevation of library material.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i To what extent in which library materials could e preserved in our public libraries?
ii What are the use library materials?
iii To what extent provide comprehensive treatment of the library materials?
iv What are the recommendation based of the finding?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
a Fumigation: To clear sisese, bacteria, insects etc. from some where using chemicalal, metre or gas
b Deterioration: Worsening the quality of a paper as a result of a very hot or chalp climate.
c Foxing: Brownish stain always found on paper
d Microfilman: this is the process of recording information in a miniaturized form.
e Collection: A method of colleting information used in research work.
f Countingency program: A plan made in order to deal with problem that might happen in the future
g Deacidificaiton It is the process by which solution is added into acid to neutralize it.
h Deretrerious: Harmful and damaging.